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Poultry is susceptible to various diseases, most of which are caused by inadequate care, inadequate diet and diet. Somatic, infectious, parasitic diseases often affect guinea fowls with weakened immunity. In order not to lose the livestock, it is necessary to timely identify sick birds, take measures to solve the problem and protect the inhabitants of the poultry yard.
Viral and bacterial diseases of birds
Infectious diseases are classified as a dangerous group of pathologies. Viruses and bacteria spread to the flock, other animals of the backyard, and some pose a danger to human health.
The disease in birds is caused by a type of salmonella. The incubation period usually does not exceed 6 days.
- hyperthermia (up to 44 ° C);
- refusal of feed;
- low mobility;
- impaired coordination of movements;
- diarrhea with a white or yellowish coating.
The infection often affects young animals. The mortality of chicks occurs in the first 10-14 days of the disease. Infected guinea fowls must be destroyed. The rest of the livestock is prescribed a course of antibacterial therapy ("Sulfadimezin", "Biomycin", penicillins).
Pasteurella bacillus enters the poultry body mainly through the transdermal route. The bacterium multiplies rapidly and is carried by the bloodstream. The outcome of the acute form is the death of the guinea fowl in the next 3 days after contamination. In the case of a chronic course, the bird does not die, but remains infectious.
Signs of the disease:
- apathy, lethargy;
- yellow-green diarrhea streaked with blood;
- discharge from the nose.
Pasteurellosis is difficult to treat. The rapid development of the disease makes drug therapy impractical. Infected guinea fowls are sent for slaughter. The disease is dangerous for humans, the carcass is disposed of.
Marek's disease, or neurolymphomatosis, is caused by one of the subtypes of the herpes virus. The virus manifests itself only after 1-7 months from the moment of penetration into the cell and irreversibly affects the nervous system, causing paralysis of the wings and legs in guinea fowls, and deformation of the neck. The birds assume a characteristic twine posture. At first, several guinea fowls die, then the disease begins to manifest itself in a number of individuals. The virus is excreted in feces and biofluids, remains viable for a long time, spreads by airborne droplets.
Zarechny Maxim Valerievich
Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.
The prognosis is negative: there is no effective treatment, the death of the livestock continues for several months. Small chicks quickly catch the infection. Dead guinea fowls are disposed of.
Trichomonas is the simplest parasite that enters the body through the alimentary way. The disease often affects chicks in the first six months of life, causing the death of the brood.
Trichomonas multiplies rapidly, causes inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, destroys the walls of blood vessels, causes thrombosis and intoxication. Young animals are acutely ill, adult guinea fowls are in a chronic form. Trichomoniasis symptoms:
- offensive, blistering, yellow-gray stool;
- expansion of the goiter;
- labored breathing;
- discharge from the eyes and nose.
The disease leads to depletion of the guinea fowl, affecting the gastrointestinal tract. For treatment, drugs of the imidazole group are used.
Mycoplasma enters the body of a bird by airborne droplets, affects the internal organs, eyes, and the respiratory system.
Mycoplasmosis in guinea fowls is manifested:
- shortness of breath;
- refusal to eat and lethargy;
- ruffled plumage;
- sneezing, coughing;
- discharge from the eyes and nose;
- yellow-green diarrhea.
Treatment is effective at an early stage of the disease. Prescribe streptomycin antibiotics, macrolides.
A rare disease among guinea fowls is chronic. Symptoms that appear several months after infection are mild.
In birds, it is noted:
- lethargic behavior;
- yellowness of the skin and mucous membranes;
- shrinking of the comb;
- movement disorders;
For therapy, anti-tuberculosis drugs and antibiotics are used. Prescribe "Isoniazid", "Pyrazinamide", "Rifampicin", "Streptomycin", "Ethambutol". The first course lasts 60 days, with carriers struggling up to 4 months.
Salmonellosis (typhus, paratyphoid fever)
Salmonella is especially dangerous for chicks, which often become infected during the incubation stage.
- depressed state;
- lack of appetite;
- drooping wings and eyelids;
- inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes;
The mortality rate from the acute form reaches 100%. In the chronic form, guinea fowls are given "Furazolidone" in a course, then antibiotics of a number of azithromycins or "Levomycetin". The third step is to introduce nitrofurans. Healthy individuals are shown preventive courses of antibiotics.
Prevention of contagious diseases
Prevention is the main way to fight infection.
- maintaining optimal temperature, humidity, cleanliness in the poultry house;
- regular processing of feeders and drinkers;
- livestock inspections, isolation of birds with suspected infection;
- separate keeping of adult guinea fowls and chicks;
- balanced diet;
Most problems can be avoided by regular veterinary checks.
Non-contagious diseases of guinea fowl
In addition to the spread of infections, inadequate care can lead to the development of non-communicable somatic diseases.
A monotonous diet rich in nitrogen often provokes a disturbance in the metabolism of uric acid. The result is the deposition of its salts in the joints.
- deformation and impaired mobility of the joints;
- loss of appetite and body weight;
- digestive disorders;
- inflammation of the cloaca;
- whitish droppings.
The birds are adjusted their diet and are soldered with sodium bicarbonate (10 grams per 1 head) or "Atofan" is given at the rate of 0.5 grams per bird. An iodine mesh is made locally and salicylic ointment is rubbed in.
If kept incorrectly, the birds injure each other, show aggression and cannibalism.
The reasons are:
- intense long-term lighting;
- dry air;
- nutritional deficiencies;
- joint maintenance of adults and young animals.
Antiseptic dressings are applied to the wounds, fractures are adjusted and fixed with splints or plaster.
Dyspepsia is manifested by symptoms of disturbances in the digestive tract: foamy stools, loss of appetite, apathy. Most often, the syndrome occurs in young chicks. Youngsters are given cottage cheese, kefir, vitamins, prebiotics and probiotics, transferred to a balanced feed.
Inflammation and infection of an umbilical wound that has not closed is life-threatening for newborn chicks. The wound becomes inflamed, gets wet, and requires urgent treatment. The chick is moved to a clean cage, given antibiotics, and the focus is treated with antibacterial agents.
Cold and high humidity cause a runny nose in guinea fowls. Birds find it hard to breathe, clear or yellowish mucus is secreted from the nose, appetite worsens. Treatment begins with the creation of a favorable microclimate in the poultry house, antimicrobial solutions are instilled into the nostrils.
A fatal condition for females is a complication of ovarian rupture. As a result of apoplexy, its contents enter the abdominal cavity, causing an extensive inflammatory process. The belly of the bird swells, bald patches form on the body. The female spends most of the time lying down. The reason is early egg laying, injury, an abundance of fatty foods. The disease is not treated. If the female is not allowed to be slaughtered, the end result is the death of the bird.
In unsanitary conditions, guinea fowls become targets for parasitic attacks. Entomoses, helminthiasis, arachnoentomoses apply to all livestock. Birds become weak, grow poorly, and become vulnerable to infections.
Guinea fowl infected with worms weakens and depletes in proportion to the growth and reproduction of parasites. Helminthiasis is treated in the early stages. They use Piperazine, Albendazole, Ivermex. In advanced cases, the bird is sent for slaughter.
Rational approach - preventive deworming of the flock.
Skin and feather parasites cause discomfort to guinea fowls, reducing productivity. For prevention and treatment, insecticidal agents are used, the conditions of detention are adjusted, and containers with ash are placed for birds. The best way to protect guinea fowls from disease is prevention, including hygienic, veterinary measures, as well as adherence to the rules of good nutrition.